Roma Antiga

Blog sobre a Roma Antiga: história, cultura, usos e costumes.

segunda-feira, novembro 21, 2005

Os censores



Era um dos cargos mais prestigiados da república. Foi criado no séc. V AC, e era destinado unicamente a patrícios; com as lutas sociais, os plebeus acabaram por ter acesso a essa magistratura (devendo um dos magistrado ser plebeu e outro patrício). Abolida e reinstalada várias vezes, acabou por ser abolida definitivamente pelo imperador Dominiciano (finais do séc. I). Os censores eram dois e eleitos por um período de 18 meses. A sua função primitiva era a de contar os cidadãos (efectuar o censo). Estipulavam o rol dos cidadãos elegíveis para o senado, e eram responsáveis pela construção de edifícios públicos. Progressivamente, os seus poderes foram crescendo: tratar de parte das finanças de Roma, pesos e medidas, dar todas as informações estatísticas aos outros órgãos. Mas talvez a função porque ficaram conhecidos, foi a de controladores da moral pública. Catão por exemplo, ordenou a expulsão de um senador do senado, por ter sido visto a beijar a mulher em público. Qualquer pessoa que fosse acusada de ter um comportamento imoral (que tanto poderia ser um caso extremo como relato anteriormente, como o de suborno), cairia sob a sua alçada; para garantir a sua reputação, escolhia-se os censores de entre antigos cônsules. Ora, com o relaxamento dos costumes no final da república, as facções tratavam de comprar ou eleger membros para censores, para assim os outros membros que pudessem ser acusados de corrupção serem absolvidos sem problemas e pelo contrários, acusar os adversários; a instituição caiu em descrédito. Também o gigantismo do império, impedia que dois indivíduos conseguissem contar fosse o que fosse. Com o império, os imperadores guardavam para si um dos lugares, dando outro a um dos seus próximos.
Q.F.M.

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