Roma Antiga

Blog sobre a Roma Antiga: história, cultura, usos e costumes.

quarta-feira, junho 15, 2011

Jewish Military Forces in the Roman Service por Jonathan P. Roth
É um artigo de um historiador norte-americano. O tema é interessante e levanta boas questões, mas tem defeitos fatais.
Começa pela questão de saber a identidade das pessoas. Os historiadores antigos tinham a tendência para fazer generalizações (o que é compreensível em zonas pequenas com enormes diversidades étnicas). Assim, na síria, um habitante poderia ser chamado de sírio, independentemente de ser sírio, judeu, ou outra etnia diferente. Depois existe a questão da identidade da pessoa. São Paulo era romano ou judeu? Ambos obviamente, mas em contextos diferentes ele seria considerado judeu (para os seus correligionários em questões religiosas) ou romano (do ponto de vista jurídico).
É apresentado de seguida um panorama da organização militar dos Herodíades (na maior parte das vezes recorrendo a Josefo que utilizava vocabulário grego tirado dos exércitos helenísticos para descrever o armamento, patentes e estruturas dos exércitos judeus, o que confunde as coisas dado que se ignora o que ele quer dizer com esses nomes).
Os diversos reinos da dinastia de Herodes foram recrutando diversas unidades de outras populações: samaritanos, idumeneus (basicamente minorias que eram detestados pelos judeus). Mas o autor considera que estas populações eram judias também (mesmo que não fossem assim considerados pelos judeus seguidores do Templo de Jerusalém), portanto, quando o autor fala de tropas judias ao serviço de Roma, será necessário fazer essa ressalva, pois ele está a considerar populações que normalmente não são vistas desse modo (dado que o termo “judeus” é habitualmente reservado aos seguidores do Templo).
A esta luz, faz algum sentido o comportamento de boa parte das tropas “judias” que ficaram do lado de Roma (embora algumas se tivessem juntado aos revoltosos, o que mostra que as coisas deviam ser longe de ser lineares).
São apresentados diversos casos de legionários e oficiais subalternos com nomes romanos que são considerados como judeus dado que serviam em unidades estacionadas na Judeia. Ora, isso parece-me um argumento um pouco forçado. É certo, que se no ocidente as legiões eram recrutadas em Itália (ou descendentes de italianos em colónias), e no oriente desde cedo se recorreu ao recrutamento no oriente, isso não quer dizer que as tropas fossem de origem local. Sem outro tipo de evidência (diplomas ou inscrições em túmulos), acho arriscado considerar que alguém com um nome romano é forçosamente judeu…
O autor considera que a famosa guarda do templo que teria prendido Jesus, não era constituída efectivamente por guardas, mas sim que os evangelistas confundiram por ignorância da realidade, guardas com sacerdotes que seriam guardiões do templo (sem grandes provas na minha opinião). Também considera que a coorte romana que é referida no evangelho, não existiu, ou quanto muito seria constituída por samaritanos.
Termina com “que fizeram os romanos por nós”, descrevendo os zelotas como um bando de fanáticos, perseguidor de outras populações, verdadeiro obstáculo ao progresso civilizacional, paz e prosperidade que os romanos trouxeram, sendo para o autor, os judeus que colaboraram com Roma os verdadeiros patriotas. Confesso que tive de me conter para não me rir com esta última parte. Percebo que se admire muito uma civilização, mas um bocadinho de objectividade e sobriedade é o mínimo que se pede a um historiador profissional.
A bibliografia aliás ajuda a explicar: alguns sólidos livros de historiadores, mas nada ligado à arqueologia.

49 Comments:

Anonymous Anónimo said...

Para mais informações consultar o fórum História Universal

4:14 da tarde  
Blogger 风骚达哥 said...

20150926 junda
louis vuitton outlet
Jordan 8 Bugs Bunny
Buy Kobe Shoes Online Discount
michael kors handbag
Real Louis Vuitton Bags
Michael Kors Handbags Huge Off
michael kors outlet
coach outlet
michael kors outlet
Ralph Lauren Outlet Clothing
ugg boots
michael kors handbag
abercrombie
Michael Kors Outlet Handbags Factory Price
canada goose outlet
Mont Blanc Legend And Mountain Pen Discount
Abercrombie and Fitch Outlet Sale
Louis Vuitton Handbags Discount Off
Michael Kors Handbags Outlet Deals
ugg boots clearance
Authentic Louis Vuitton Handbags Cheap Online
cheap toms shoes
Lebron James Basketball Shoes Sale
Jordan 6 Rings Powder Blue
celine
Louis Vuitton Handbags Factory Store
Coach Factory Outlet Private Sale
michael kors bags
Jordan 13 Shoes For Sale
ralph lauren uk

8:51 da manhã  
Blogger Packers Movers Gurgaon said...

It is one of the awesome site in my view as far as my knowledge is concerned about this kind website. Thanks for sharing!
Packers And Movers Gurgaon

9:24 da manhã  
Anonymous Packers And Movers Gurgaon said...

I agree with you. This post is truly inspiring. I like your post and everything you share with us is current and very informative, I want to bookmark the page so I can return here from you that you have done a fantastic job.
Packers And Movers Gurgaon to Noida

9:25 da manhã  
Anonymous packers and movers bangalore said...

Nice post:
Packers And Movers Bangalore charges

9:20 da manhã  
Anonymous packers and movers bangalore said...

nice article:

http://packers-and-movers-bangalore.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore-to-hyderabad

9:35 da manhã  
Anonymous packers and movers bangalore said...

Packers and movers bangalore to hyderabad @ Packers And Movers Bangalore to hyderabad

9:36 da manhã  
Blogger meto mayo said...



شركة نقل اثاث بالدمام تقدم خدمات لا حصر لها رائعة لتلبية طلبات العميل وتحقيق كل ما يتمناه في خدمات نقل العفش بالدمام فثقتنا في اعمالنا جيدة قد وضعتنا كخبراء داخل مجال نقل الاثاث حيث يتم التشاور مع حقيبة مختلطة من داخل شركة نقل عفش بالدمام عن اختيار المواد الخاصة بك والمواد أو الأشياء من على عتبة منزلك لتصل جميع ممتلكاتك بأمان إلى المكان الذي ترغب فيه
شركة نقل الاثاث بجدة لدينا ميل الي التفكير في إعطاء نوع من الإدارات لدي شركة نقل اثاث بجدة التي تطوير انفسهم ومتابعة كل ما هو حديث في عالم نقل الاثاث المنزلي والبحث عن الطرق الحديثة التي تؤدي الي انجاز المهمة بكل سهولة والتي تترك نجاح باهر يمكن أن يساعد على ارضاء نفسية عملائنا.لدينا الميل في شركة نقل عفش بجدة إلى أن يشار جيدا إلى السيارات الحديثة التي نمتلكها علي انها ذات كفاءة عالية كما نمتلك عمال تنزيل علي اعلي مستوي كما يوجد لدينا في خدمة نقل عفش بجدة
فنين فك وتركيب لديهم القدرة الكافية علي التعامل مع جميع انواع الاثاث كما اننا نمتاز باننا نمتلك المغلفون الذين يقومون بتغليف جميع الاثاث المنزلي للحفاظ عليه من الغبار والتكسير كل هذه العوامل التي تقدمها شركتنا نتيجة للمعيار والتنمية والعقل
شركة نقل الاثاث بمكةتكتشف مجموعتنا الخاصة في فريق شركة نقل اثاث بمكة في خدمتك في أي وقت من اليوم وأنها مستعدة للبقاء طيلة الوقت لمساعدتك في نقل اثاث منزلك سواء كان بيتك كبير او صغير قهذه ميزة الشركات الكبيرة التي تقدم الخدمات المتميزة فنحن نأمل دائما لإعطاء أفضل انطباع من تجربة نقل ممتازة. يتم اتخاذ كل خطوة الرعاية من قبل فريقنا والتعامل مع أفضل طريقة ممكنة. لدينا في شركة نقل عفش بمكة المتخصصين هم أيضا على استعداد للرد على الاحتياجات الفورية لعملائنا الكرام.
مستودعات تخزين الاثاث بالرياضالتعبئة والتغليف واحدة من أكثر المعترف بها في خدمة نقل وتخزين الاثاث بالرياض فخدمة التعبئة والتغليف لدي شركة تخزين اثاث بالرياض يمكن أن يحصل على انتباه الكثير من العملاء وهذا يرجع ببساطة إلى أننا نواصل الوفاء بطلباتهم. كما قمنا بتطوير وواصلنا تقديم أفضل الخدمات التي تحافظ علي ممتلكتهم في مستودعات تخزين العفش التي تكمل في الحفاظ علي الأموال المدفوعة في ممتلكتهم لحين الرجوع اليها مرة أخري
شركة تخزين اثاث
الشيء المثير للإعجاب بالنسبة الينا في شركة تخزين عفش بالرياض هو أن فريقنا على استعداد لخدمتك في أي وقت من اليوم لطالما كنت بحاجة لدينا فنحن نواصل إقناع عملائنا التأمين علي جميع العناصر الخاصة بهم. هذا هو السبب الرئيسي لماذا بقينا على أنها


6:55 da tarde  
Blogger عبده العمراوى said...

شركة امست للتنظيف

6:53 da manhã  
Anonymous Packers And Movers Jaipur said...

I loved this one. It has given me courage to try scarier things. I tend to steer clear of them but not anymore.Packers And Movers Jaipur

10:59 da manhã  
Anonymous Packers And Movers Jaipur said...

Packers And Movers Jaipur to Chennai
Packers And Movers Jaipur to Pune
Packers And Movers Jaipur to Hyderabad
Packers And Movers Jaipur to Bhubaneswar
Packers And Movers Jaipur to Bhopal
Packers And Movers Jaipur to Lucknow
Packers And Movers Jaipur to Chandigarh
Packers And Movers Jaipur to Patna

11:00 da manhã  
Anonymous Packers And Movers Jaipur said...

Packers And Movers Jodhpur
Packers And Movers Udaipur
Packers And Movers Abu Road
Packers And Movers Banswara
Packers And Movers Barmer
Packers And Movers Bundi
Packers And Movers Chomu
Packers And Movers Churu

11:01 da manhã  
Anonymous Packers And Movers kolkata said...

An excellent information provided thanks for all the information i must say great efforts made by you.thanks a lot for all the information you provided.
please visit our official website for further details-Packers and Movers Kolkata

6:59 da manhã  
Anonymous Packers And Movers kolkata said...

Packers And Movers Bankura
Packers And Movers Bardhaman
Packers And Movers Hooghly
Packers And Movers Howrah
Packers And Movers Jalpaiguri
Packers And Movers Malda
Packers And Movers Murshidabad
Packers And Movers Nadia

7:00 da manhã  
Anonymous Packers And Movers kolkata said...

Packers And Movers Kolkata to Chennai
Packers And Movers Kolkata to Pune
Packers And Movers Kolkata to Hyderabad
Packers And Movers Kolkata to Bhubaneswar
Packers And Movers Kolkata to Bhopal
Packers And Movers Kolkata to Lucknow
Packers And Movers Kolkata to Chandigarh
Packers And Movers Kolkata to Patna

7:01 da manhã  
Anonymous packers and movers hyderbada said...

Packers And Movers Hyderabad Local Household Shifting Service, Get Free Best Price Quotes Local Packers and Movers in Hyderabad List, Compare Charges, Save Money And Time.
Packers And Movers Hyderabad

6:34 da manhã  
Anonymous packers and movers hyderbada said...

Packers And Movers kondapur Hyderabad
Packers And Movers Hitech City Hyderabad
Packers And Movers Lingampally Hyderabad
Packers And Movers Kukatpally Hyderabad
Packers And Movers KPHB Colony
Packers And Movers Madhapur Hyderabad
Packers And Movers gachibowli Hyderabad
Packers And Movers Chandanagar
Packers And Movers Miyapur

6:46 da manhã  
Blogger Ankit Kumar said...

QuickBooks Support Phone Number

QuickBooks Technical Support Phone Number

QuickBooks Tech Support Phone Number

QuickBooks 24/7 Support Phone Number

QuickBooks PRO Support Phone Number

QuickBooks Support Number

8:57 da manhã  
Blogger Robert Elfed said...


QuickBooks Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Technical Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Tech Support Phone Number
QuickBooks 24/7 Support Phone Number
QuickBooks PRO Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Support Number

11:07 da manhã  
Blogger Robert Elfed said...

QuickBooks Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Technical Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Tech Support Phone Number
QuickBooks 24/7 Support Phone Number
QuickBooks PRO Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Support Number

12:42 da tarde  
Blogger Robert Elfed said...

QuickBooks Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Technical Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Tech Support Phone Number
QuickBooks 24/7 Support Phone Number
QuickBooks PRO Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Desktop Support Number

9:58 da manhã  
Blogger Robert Elfed said...

Modernisation of QuickBooks Support & QuickBooks Payroll support Technology has become an integral part of our lives. Human beings relay on technology more than any thing in this world and we have given meanings & name to the technology. So if you are having any problem with your QuickBooks Payroll Call the only QuickBooks Payroll Phone Number at 1888-567-1159 today.

8:14 da manhã  
Blogger Robert Elfed said...

QuickBooks Payroll Number
QuickBooks Payroll Technical Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Payroll Tech Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Payroll 24/7 Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Payroll PRO Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Payroll Desktop Support Number

12:53 da tarde  
Blogger rdsraftaar said...

QuickBooks Tech Support Phone Number +1-888-396-0208 is one the best accounting assistance which can be accessed through QuickBooks Helpline Number. The main reason for providing these services is to resolve the QB Errors, and users can use QuickBooks Support Phone Number for QB Desktop, Mac Support, and Enterprise Support.

8:11 da manhã  
Blogger Ankit Kumar said...

QuickBooks Enterprise Support
QuickBooks Enterprise Phone Number
QuickBooks Enterprise Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Enterprise Tech Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Enterprise Technical Support Phone Number

8:41 da manhã  
Blogger Robert Elfed said...

QuickBooks Support Number
QuickBooks Tech Support Number
QuickBooks Technical Support Number

8:06 da manhã  
Blogger Ankit Kumar said...

Contact us at +1-888-396-0208 to resolve any issue. The best QuickBooks POS Support Phone Number with tools for skipping the wait on hold, the current wait time, tools for scheduling a time to talk with a QuickBooks Point of Sale (POS) rep, reminders when the call center opens.

6:32 da manhã  
Blogger Robert Elfed said...

Direct Deposit:Pay Employees with QuickBooks Payroll
Preparing Payroll Manually For Non-Payroll ... template to prepare employee payroll ... will be missing in your QuickBooks data file

9:02 da manhã  
Blogger rdsraftaar said...

QuickBooks Support Phone Number

QuickBooks Tech Support Phone Number

QuickBooks Payroll Support Phone Number

QuickBooks Payroll Tech Support Phone Number

QuickBooks Payroll Phone Number

7:29 da manhã  
Blogger Mathew said...

Need Help for your Quickbooks Software ? Official Intuit QuickBooks Tech Support Phone Number , Fixing all the issues related to your Quickbooks , accounting software . 24/7 available USA Toll Free Number 1888-567-1159. Get in Touch with us Quickly.

12:43 da tarde  
Blogger Robert Elfed said...


Contact QuickBooks Support Phone Number 1888-567-1159 for instant help & other QuickBooks payroll service, We’re available 24x7 for any payroll support technical assistance.Just give us a call on
QuickBooks Tech Support Phone Number 1888-567-1159

11:15 da manhã  
Blogger Mathew said...

http://quickbooks-self-help.jigsy.com/

http://quickbookstechnicalhelp.doodlekit.com/

https://quickbookstechhelp.dudaone.com/

http://quickbookstechhelp.webstarts.com

http://quickbookstechnicalhelp.bravesites.com/

7:44 da manhã  
Blogger Robert Elfed said...

https://www.qbpayrollsupport.com/security-feature-in-quickbooks-payroll/

https://www.qbpayrollsupport.com/quickbooks-payroll-data-integration/

https://www.qbpayrollsupport.com/quickbooks-payroll-cloud-hosting-services/

https://www.qbpayrollsupport.com/intuit-quickbooks-payroll-for-mac/

https://www.qbpayrollsupport.com/intuit-quickbooks-desktop-payroll-software/

10:02 da manhã  
Blogger Mathew said...

QuickBooks Payroll Support Phone Number 1888-396-0208 Managing the accounts for small or medium sized businesses can be a very inconvenient task. You can spend your whole month on a single chair just to complete multiple spreadsheets and manage the payrolls. Every small business or organization needs software.

9:34 da manhã  
Blogger rdsraftaar said...

If you ever need any assistance for enjoying any of its features you may call our QuickBooks Payroll Support Phone Number 1888-567-1159. The only number you need to call for technical help for QuickBooks..Intuit QuickBooks Payroll For MAC Support Phone Numberis all about getting the best help from QuickBooks Technical Support.

9:06 da manhã  
Blogger Kristy said...

QuickBooks POS Support Phone Number
QuickBooks POS Tech Support Phone Number
QuickBooks POS Technical Support Phone Number
QuickBooks POS 24/7 Support Phone Number
QuickBooks POS Support Number

8:02 da manhã  
Blogger Mathew said...

Quickbooks Support is one of the best accounting assistance available which can be accessed through QuickBooks Tech Support Phone Number 1888-396-0208. The main reason for providing the assistance services is to resolve the QB Errors, and users can use QuickBooks Support Phone Number for QB Desktop, Mac Support, and Enterprise Support.

8:08 da manhã  
Blogger Pankaj Ahuja said...

QuickBooks Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Technical Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Tech Support Phone Number
QuickBooks 24/7 Support Phone Number
QuickBooks PRO Support Phone Number

9:37 da manhã  
Blogger rdsraftaar said...

QuickBooks POS Support Phone Number
QuickBooks POS Tech Support Phone Number
QuickBooks POS Technical Support Phone Number
QuickBooks POS 24/7 Support Phone Number
QuickBooks POS Support Number

11:26 da manhã  
Blogger Mathew said...

QuickBooks accounting software program is designed to support the accounting functionalities of small businesses of all sectors. This software is a one stop source that manages all your business accounting and financial tasks from a single device remotely on the go with stable internet connectivity. Manage your Business activities at Number 1888-396-0208. Dial our Toll free number to take the Help from our Certified Technicians.

QuickBooks Support Number
QuickBooks Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Tech Support Number
QuickBooks Tech Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Technical Support Number
QuickBooks Technical Support Phone Number

11:41 da manhã  
Blogger Ankit Kumar said...

Point of sale (POS) integration with QuickBooks or any kind of support just dial Intuit QuickBooks Point of Sale Support Phone Number and get instant support for QuickBooks POS from Intuit certified technician. Call our Toll free Helpline Number +1-888-396-0208 and fix your issue.
QuickBooks POS Support Number
QuickBooks POS Support Phone Number
QuickBooks POS Tech Support Number
QuickBooks POS Tech Support Phone Number
QuickBooks POS Technical Support Number
QuickBooks POS Technical Support Phone Number

11:53 da manhã  
Blogger subhash yadav said...

Contact QuickBooks Payroll Support Phone Number 1888-567-1159 for instant help & other QuickBooks payroll service, We're available 24x7 for any payroll support technical assistance.


QuickBooks Payroll Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Payroll Tech Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Payroll Technical Support Phone Number
QuickBooks Payroll Support Number
QuickBooks Payroll 24/7 Support Phone Number

6:59 da manhã  
Blogger Robert Elfed said...

That was a great read. I really like your writing style and how you explain certain things. I will be back to read more from you.We also provide Technical Support for QuickBooks Payroll , if you face any problem with your QuickBooks Payroll you can just click here. Or dial 1888-567-1159.

7:27 da manhã  
Blogger Pankaj Ahuja said...

On the off chance that you are confronting any of the above issues that is limiting you to approach your documents and intruding on your business, immediately report the issue to the QuickBooks ProAdvisor Technical Support.

11:41 da manhã  
Blogger Ankit Kumar said...

From couple of minor enlargements to a noteworthy improvement in the software in type of new request satisfaction include inside the stock administration part of business, the new software will undoubtedly facilitate the workload of numerous bookkeepers and clerks QuickBooks POS Support.

6:06 da manhã  
Blogger Ankit Kumar said...

QuickBooks is a primary business accounting programming that offers an aggregate extent of accounting answers for enhance your business cash related necessities. It draws in you with all the right gadgets and gives you the chance to get to your records, cooperate with your gathering, and manage your business even in a rush. A gigantic number of associations around the world rely upon QuickBooks for their consistently accounting assignments QuickBooks Payroll Tech Support Phone Number .

9:34 da manhã  
Blogger Mathew said...

Now, it has become very easy for the QuickBooks users to link all your bank details with QuickBooks and provides an ease while making transactions from credit card or from any bank. While any interruption like inactive bank account, card not working or changes in account can easily be taken with the help of technical hands QuickBooks Enterprise Support Phone Number 1888-396-0208.

10:38 da manhã  
Blogger rdsraftaar said...

Official Intuit QuickBooks Technical Support Phone Number , Fix the blunder of framework , bookkeeping programming on Phone . all day, every day accessible USA Toll Free Number +1800-291-2485

12:46 da tarde  
Blogger Robert Elfed said...


Figuring out how to account, computing expenses and finding are the most borings activities on the planet. And furthermore, it could be the most tedious and confounding. Be that as it may, on the off chance that you possess any business, and need to take your business to another tallness, it could be the most critical work for you to do. QuickBooks Payroll Support Phone NumberDial 1888-567-1159 to contact us.

7:22 da manhã  

Enviar um comentário

<< Home